Organic Functional Groups Jmols

Organic Functional Groups

Organic Functional Groups

Functional Groups

Functional groups are a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a family of compounds. The foundational functional group is the alkane. All organic molecules are modifications of the alkane and are named using the alkanes as the basic unit. Other functional groups can be thought of as substituted onto alkanes. Hydrocarbon functional groups, where there are no other kinds of atoms (C, H), include the alkanes, alkenes with carbon-carbon double bonds, and alkynes with carbon-carbon triple bonds. The remaining functional groups have other atoms like oxygen and nitrogen.

When looking at all organic and biochemical molecules the most important thing to look at is the atoms that are NOT carbon and hydrogen. Those are the functional groups and that is where the reactions will occur.

Alkanes are shown below and again, are the basic unit of organic chemistry.

alkanes

PencilWhat elements are present?

PencilAre these molecules polar or nonpolar?

PencilWhat types of intermolecular forces will occur between multiple copies of these molecules? Why?

Alcohols

The functional group of the alcohol is -OH. You can also write it as R-OH. "R" means the rest of the molecule. The R designation is used because the rest of the molecule isn't particularly important, since the reactions occur at the carbon with the functional group. (The rest of the molecules are the carbons and hydrogens NOT connected to the functional group.)

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of alcohol.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan an alcohol hydrogen bond with other alcohol molecules?

PencilCan alcohols hydrogen bond with water?

Aldehydes

The functional group of an aldehyde is H - C = O. This functional group is always at the end of a molecule. NOTE that in this version of the molecules the carbon-oxygen double bond can't be shown – but it is there.

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of an aldehyde.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan an aldehyde hydrogen bond with other aldehydes?

PencilCan aldehydes hydrogen bond with water? Is the hydrogen on the carbon with the double bonded oxygen polar or nonpolar?

PencilCan aldehydes do another type of intermolecular interaction with each other? What type?

Ketones

The functional group of a ketone is C = O. Again the carbon is double bonded to the oxygen, but can't be shown as such.

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of a ketone.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan a ketone hydrogen bond with other ketones?

PencilCan ketones hydrogen bond with water?

PencilCan ketones do another type of intermolecular interaction with each other? What type?

Carboxylic Acids

The functional group of a carboxylic acid is HO - C = O. Again the carbon is double bonded to one of the oxygens, but can't be shown as such.

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of a carboxylic acid.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan a carboxylic acid hydrogen bond with other carboxylic acids?

PencilCan carboxylic acids hydrogen bond with water?

PencilCan carboxylic acids do another type of intermolecular interaction with each other? What type?

Esters

The functional group of an ester is O - C = O. Again the carbon is double bonded to one of the oxygens, but can't be shown as such.

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of an ester.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan an ester hydrogen bond with other esters?

PencilCan esters hydrogen bond with water?

PencilCan esters do another type of intermolecular interaction with each other? What type?

Amines

The functional group of an amine is NH2.

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of an amine.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan an amine hydrogen bond with other amines?

PencilCan amines hydrogen bond with water?

Amides

The functional group of an amide is H2N - C = O. Again the carbon is double bonded to the oxygen, but can't be shown as such.

Functional Group Click on the button to view the functional group of an amide.

R Group Click on this button to look at the R group of the molecule. This is the rest of the molecule.

PencilWhat is the molecular formula of this functional group?

PencilIs this functional group polar or nonpolar? How do you know?

PencilDoes this functional group have any polar hydrogens? Why?

PencilCan an amide hydrogen bond with other amides?

PencilCan amides hydrogen bond with water?

PencilCan amides do another type of intermolecular interaction with each other? What type?

3-dimensional Jmol Display